Read Theory to Me — Affective Economies (essay) SARA AHMED

this essay starts with a quote from the Aryan Nations website the depths of love are rooted and very deep in a real white nationalist soul and spirit no form of hate could even begin to compare at least not a hate motivated by under ungrounded reasoning it is not hate that makes the average white man look upon our mixed-race couple with a scowl on his face and loathing in his heart it is not hate that makes the white housewife throw down the daily newspaper newspaper it says in repulsion and anger after reading of yet another child molester or rapist sentenced by corrupt courts to a couple of short ears in prison or on parole it is not hate that makes the white workingman curse about the latest boatload of aliens dumped on our shores to be given a job preference over the white citizen who built this land it is not hate that brings rage into the heart of a white Christian farmer when he reads of billions loaned or given away as aid to foreigners when he can’t get the smallest break from an unmerciful government to save his failing farm no it’s not hate it is love hey this is Sarah common now how do emotions work to align some subjects with some others and against other others how do emotions move between bodies in this essay I argue that emotions play a crucial role in the surfacing of individual and collective bodies through the way in which emotions circulate between bodies and signs such an argument clearly challenges any assumption that emotions are a private matter that they so that they simply belong to individuals or even that they come from within and then move outward towards others it creates it suggests that emotions are not simply within or without but that they create the very effect of the surfaces or boundaries of bodies and worlds for instance in the above narrative on the Aryan Nations website the role of emotions in particular hate and love is crucial to the delineation of the bodies of individual subjects and the body of the nation here a subject the white nationalist the average white man the white house wife the white working man the white citizen the white Christian farmer is presented as dangered by imagined others whose proximity threatens not only to take something away from the subject jobs security wealth but to take the place of the subject in other words the presence of those others is imagined as a threat to the object of love the narrative involves a rewriting of history in which the labors of others migrants slaves is concealed in a fantasy that is the white subject who built this land the white subjects claim the place of hosts our shores at the same time as they claim the position of the victim as the ones who are damaged by an unmerciful government the narrative hence suggests that it is love for the nation that makes the white Aryans hate those whom they recognize as strangers as the ones who are taking away the nation and the role of the Aryans in its history as well as their future we might note as well that the reading of others is hateful alliant the imagined subject with the rights and the imagination with ground this alignment is effected by the representation of both the rights of the subject and the grounds of the nation is already under threat it is the emotional reading of hate that works to bind the imagined white subject and nation together the average white man feels fear and loathing the white housewife repulsion and anger the white working man curses the white Christian farmer rage the passion of these negative attachments to others is redefined simultaneously as a positive attachment to the imagined subjects brought together through the repetition of the signifier white it is the love of white or those recognizable as white that supposedly explains this shared communal visceral response of hate together we hate and this heat hate is what makes us together this narrative is far from extraordinary indeed it shows us what it shows us is the production of the ordinary the ordinary is here fantastic the ordinary white subject is a fantasy that comes into being through the mobilisation of hate as a passionate attachment tied closely to love the emotion of hate works to animate the ordinary subject to bring that fantasy to life precisely by constituting the ordinary as in crisis and the ordinary person as the real victim the ordinary becomes that which is already under that threat by imagined others whose proximity becomes a crime against person as well as place the ordinary or normative subject is reproduced as the injured party the one hurt or even damaged by invasion of others the bodies of others are hence transformed into the hated through a discourse of pain they are assumed to cause injury to the ordinary white subject such that their proximity is read as the origin of bad feeling indeed the implication here is that the white subjects good feelings love care loyalty are being taken away by the abuse of such feelings of others so who is hated in such a narrative of ink or injury clearly hate is distributed across various figures in this case the mixed-race couple the child master the rapist aliens and foreigners these figures come to embody the threat of loss lost jobs lost money lost land they signify the danger of impurity or mixing or taking of blood they threatened to violate the pure bodies such bodies can only be imagined as pure by the perpetual restaging of this fantasy of violation note the work that is being done through this metonymic slide mixed race couplings and immigrants immigration become readable as like forms of rape or molestation an invasion of the body of the nation represented here as the vulnerable and damaged bodies of the white woman and child the slide between figures constructs a relation of resemblance between the figures what makes them alike maybe they’re unlike nests within the narrative heat cannot be found in one figure but works to create the very outline of different figures or objects of hate a creation that crucially aligns the figures together and constitutes them as a common threat importantly then he does not reside in a given subject or object hate is economic it circulates between signifiers and relationships of difference and displacement in such effective economies emotions do things and they align individuals with communities or bodily space with social space through the very intense if their attachments rather than seeing emotions as psychological dispositions we need to consider how they work in concrete and particular ways to mediate the relationship between the psychic and the social between the individual and the collective in particular I will show how emotions work by sticking figures together adherence a sticking that creates the very effect of a collective coherence with reference to the figures of the asylum seeker and the international terrorists my economic model of emotion suggests that while emotions do not positively reside in a subject or figure they still work to bind subjects together indeed to put it more strongly the non-residents of emotion is what makes them binding economies of hate everyday language certainly constructs emotions as a form of positive residence so I might say I have a feeling or I might describe a film as being sad in such ways of speaking emotions become property something that belongs to a subject or object which can take the form of a characteristic or quality I want to challenge the idea that I have an emotion or that something or somebody makes me feel a certain way I am interested in the way emotions involve subjects and objects but without residing positively within them indeed emotions may only seem like a form of residence as an effect of a certain history a history that may operate by concealing its own traces clearly such an approach borrows from psychoanalysis which is also a theory of the subject as lacking positive residents a lack of being most commonly articulated as the unconscious in his essay on the unconscious Freud introduces the notion of unconscious emotions where an affective impulse is perceived to at misconstrued and which becomes attached to another idea what is repressed from consciousness is not the feeling as such but the idea to which the feeling may have been first but provisionally connected psychoanalysis allows us to see that emotionality involves movements or associations whereby feelings take us across different levels of signification not all of which can be admitted in the present this is what I would call the rip affective emotions they move sideways through sticky associations between science figures and objects as well as backward repression eyes leaves its trace in the present hence what sticks is also bound up with the perhaps —nt presence of historicity in the opening quotation we can see precisely how hate slides sideways between figures as well as backward by reopening past associations that allow somebodies to be read as the cause of our hate or as being hateful indeed insofar as psychoanalysis is a theory of the subject as lacking in the present then it offers a theory of emotion as economy as involving relationships of difference and displacement without positive value that is emotions work as a form of capital effect effect does not reside positively in the sign or commodity but is produced only as an effect of its circulation I am using the economic to suggest that emotions circulate and are distributed across the social as well as a psychic field I am borrowing from the Marxian critique of the logic of capital in capital Marx discusses how the movement of commodities and money in the formula MCM money to commodity to money creates surplus value that is through circulation and exchange and acquires more value or as he puts it the value originally advanced therefore not only remains intact while in circulation but increases its magnitude adds to itself a surplus value or is valorized and this movement converts it into capital I am identifying a similar logic the movement between signs converts into effect marks links value with effect through the figures of the capitalist and the miser this boundless drive for enrichment this passionate chase after value is common to the capitalist and to the miser passion drives the accumulation of capital the capitalist is not interested in the use value of commodities but in the appropriation of ever more wealth what I am offering is a theory of passion not as the drive to accumulate whether it be value power meaning but as that which is accumulated over time effect does not reside in an object or sign but isn’t as effect of the circulation between objects and signs equaling the accumulation of effective value over time some sign that is increase an effective value as an effect of the movement between signs the more they circulate the more effective they become and the more they appear to contain effect another way to theorize this process would be to describe feelings via an analogy with commodity fetishism feelings appear in objects or indeed as objects with a life of their own only by the concealment of how they are shaped by histories including histories of production labor and labour time as well as circulation or exchange of course such an argument about affect as an economy does not respect the important marks and distinction between use-value and exchange-value and hence relies on a limited analogy in some ways my approach may have been more common it may have more in common with a psychoanalytic emphasis on difference and displacement as the form or language of the unconscious described above where my approach involves a departure from psychoanalysis is precisely in my refusal to identify this economy as a psychic one although neither is it not a psychic one that is to return these relationships of difference and displacement to the signifier of the subject this return is not only clear in Freud’s work but also in lakhan’s positing of the subject as the proper scene of absence and loss as Lacroix and potala argue as Lacan descript defines the subject as the locus of the signifier then it is in a theory of the subject that the locus of the signifier settles this constitution of the subject has settlement even if what settles is lacking in presence means that the suspended context of the signifier are delimited by the contours of the subject in contrast my account of hate as an effective economy shows that emotions do not positively inhabit any body as well as anything meaning that the subject is simply one nodal point in the economy rather than its or and destination this is extremely important it suggests that the sideways and backward movement of emotions such as heat is not contained within the contours of a subject the unconscious is hence not the unconscious of a subject but the failure of presence the fit or the failure to be present that constitutes the relationality of subjects and objects a relationality that works through the circulation of signs given this effective economies need to be seen as social and material as well as psychic indeed if the movement of affect is crucial to the very making of a difference between in here and out there then the psychic and the social cannot be installed as proper objects instead materialization which Judith Butler describes as the effect of boundary fixity and surface involves a process of intensification in other words the accumulation of effective value shapes the surfaces of bodies and worlds we could hence ask how the circulation of science effect shapes okay we could hence ask how the circulation of signs of effect shapes the materialization of collective bodies for example the body of the nation we have already seen how hate slides across different figures and constitutes them as a common threat and what we can call hate speech but the slippery work of emotion cannot allow us to presume any opposition between extremist discourses and the ordinary work of reproducing the nation we can take as an example the speeches on asylum seekers by the previous leader of the British Conservative Party William Hague between April and June 2000 other speeches were in circulation that became stuck to the asylum speech seekers speech through this temporal proximity but also this is a repetition with a difference of some sticky words and language in the case of the asylum speeches heggs narrative is somewhat predictable words like flood and swamped are used which create association between asylum and the loss of control as well as dirt and sewage and hence work by mobilizing fear or the anxiety of being overwhelmed by the actual or Henschel potential proximity of others these words have recently been repeated by the current British Home Secretary David Blunkett who uses the word swamped to describe the effect that children of asylum seekers would have if they were taught by local schools when criticized he replaced the word swamped with overwhelmed the assumption here is that overwhelmed resolves the implication of swamped but as we can see it still evokes the sensation of being overtaken or taken over by others it constructs the nation as if it were a subject one who could not cope with the presence of others here words generate effects they create impressions of others as those who have invaded the space of the nation threatening its existence typically Hague in the earlier speeches differentiates between those others who are welcome and those who are not by differential differentiating between genuine and bukas asylum seekers partly this enables the national subject to imagine its own generosity in welcoming some others the nation is hospitable as it allows those genuine ones to stay and yet at the same time and construct some others as already hateful as bogus in order to define the limits or the conditions of this hospitality the construction of the bogus asylum seeker as a figure of hate also involves a narrative of uncertainty and crisis but an uncertainty in crisis that make that figure do more work how can we tell the difference between a bogus and a genuine asylum seeker according to the logic of this discourse it is always possible that we might not be able to tell the difference and that they may pass into our community passing functions here as a technology which relates physical movement with identity formation to pass through a space requires passing as a particular kind of subject one whose difference is unmarked and unremarkable the double possibility of passing commands the nation’s right and will to keep looking for signs of difference and justifies violent forms of into the bodies of others indeed the possibility that we might not be able to tell the difference Swift Lake converts into the possibility that any of those incoming bodies may be bogus in advance of their arrival they are hence read as the cause of an injury to the national body now how does the presentation of asylum as injury work through the proximity between figures of hate the figure of the bogus asylum seeker may evoke the figure of the bogeyman a figure who stalks the nation and haunts its capacity to secure its borders the bogeyman could be anywhere in any one as a ghost-like figure in the present who gives us nightmares about the future as an anticipated future of injury we see him again and again such figures of hate circulate and indeed accumulate effective value precisely because they do not have a fixed referent so the figures of the bogus asylum seeker is detached from particular bodies any incoming bodies could be bogus such that their endless arrival is anticipated as the scene of our injury the impossibility of reducing hate to a particular body allows heat to circulate an economic sense working to differentiate some others from other others a differentiation that is never over as it awaits for others who have not yet arrived such a discourse of waiting for the bogus justifies the repetition of violence against the bodies of others heggs speech speeches also produce certain effects through temporal proximity to another speech about Tony Martin a man sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering a 16 year old boy who had attempted to burgle his house in a rural area of England one sentence of Haig Haig circulates powerfully Hank argued without reference to Martin or asylum-seekers that the law is more interested in the rights of criminals than and the rights of people who are burgled such a sentence evokes a history that is not declared here what sticks may also be what resists literalization and in doing so it positions Martin as the victim and not as a criminal the victim of the murderer is now the criminal the crime that did not happen because of the murder the burglary takes the place of the murder as the true crime and as the real injustice this reversal of the victim criminal relationship becomes an implicit defence of the right to kill those who in will unlawfully enter ones property the detachment of the sentence allows two cases to get stuck together burglary and asylum which now both become matters of the right to defense the figure of the asylum seeker hence gets aligned with the figure of the burglar the alignment does important work it suggests that the asylum seeker is stealing something from the nation the characteristics of one figure get displaced or transferred onto the other or we could say that it is through the association between figures that they acquire a life of their own as they can art as if they can as if they contained effective quality or we could say that it is through the association between figures that they acquire life of their own as if they contain defective quality the burglar became a foreigner and the asylum seeker becomes a criminal at the same time the body of the murderer who has renamed as the victim becomes the body of the nation the one whose property and well-being is under threat by the forced proximity of the other as such the alignment of figures works as a narrative of defense the nation / national subject must defend itself against invasion by others such a defensive narrative is not explicitly articulated but rather works through the movement between figures the circulation does its work it produces a differentiation between quote us and them thereby they are constituted as the cause or the justification of our feelings of hate indeed we can see how attachment involves a sliding between pain and hate there is a perceived injury in which the others burglar / bogus proximity is felt as the violence of negation against both the body of the individual here the farmer and the body of the nation we can see that the effectivity of hate is what makes it difficult to pin down to locate in a body object or figure this difficulty is what makes emotions such as hate worked the way that they do it is not the impossibility of hate as such but the mode of its operation whereby it’s surf it surfaces in the world made up of other bodies in other words it is the failure of emotions to be located in a body object or figures that allows emotions to reproduce or generate the effects that they do fear bodies and objects I now want to relate my model of emotion as effective economy specifically to fear and the materialization of bodies significantly fear is an emotion that is often characterized as being about its object and hence would not seem to work in the economic sense I have defined above indeed fear has often been contrasted with anxiety insofar as fear has an object for example example Stan Lee Rahman argues that anxiety can be described as the tense anticipation of a threatening but vague event or the feeling of an uneasy suspense while fear is described as an emotional reaction to a threat that is identifiable I want to question this model by suggesting that fear is linked to the passing by of the object we can consider for instance that the narrative of asylum seekers swapping the nation works as a narrative of fear fear works to create a sense of being overwhelmed rather than being contained in an object fear as I type intensified by the impossibility of containment if the others who are feared pass by then the others might pass their way into the community and could be anywhere and everywhere Heidegger also suggests that fear is intensified when it ceases to be contained by an object that approaches he suggests quote that which is detrimental as something that threatens us is not yet within striking distance but is coming close as it draws close this it can and yet it may not become aggravated we say it is fearsome this applies that what is detrimental is coming close carries with it the paten possibility that it may stay away and pass us by but instead of lessening or extinguishing our fearing listen is it crucially Heidegger relates fear to that which is not yet in the present at in either the spatial or temporal sense of the here-and-now fear response to that which is approaching rather than already here it is the Futurity of fear which makes it possible that the object of fear rather than arriving might pass us by but the passing by the object of fear does not mean the overcoming of fear rather the possibility of the loss of the object that approaches makes what is fearsome all the more fearsome if fear has an object then fear can be contained by the object when the object of fear threatens to pass by then fear can no longer be contained by an object fear in its very relationship to an object in the very intensity of its directness towards that object is intensified by the loss of its object we could characterize this absence as about being not quite present rather than as with anxiety being nowhere at all or anxiety becomes attached to particular objects which come to life not as the cause of anxiety but as an effect of its travels in anxiety one’s thoughts often move quickly between different objects a movement that works to intensify the sense of anxiety one thinks of more and more things to be anxious about the detachment from one given object allows anxiety to accumulate in other words anxiety tends to stick to objects given this anxiety becomes an approach to objects rather than as with fear being produced by an object’s approach the slide between fear and anxiety is affected precisely by the passing by of the object furthermore fears relationship to the potential disappearance of an object is more profound than simply a relationship to the object of fear in other words it is not just fear that is at stake in fear for Freud fears themselves may function as symptoms as mechanisms for the defence of the ego against danger in his essay inhibitions symptoms and anxiety Freud returns to the little Hans case Hans had a phobic relationship to horses Freud argues that this fear is itself a symptom that has been put in the place of another fear one that much more profoundly threatens the ego the fear of castration Hans can manage his fear of horses through avoidance in a way that he could not in at his fear of the Father we might remember that in Freud’s model of unconscious emotions the effect itself is not repressed rather what is repressed is the idea to which the effect was attached so the effect of fear is sustained through the displacement between objects the displacement between objects works also to link those objects together such linkages are not created by fear but may already be in place within the social imaginary in the Freudian model the movement between objects is intrapsychic and goes backward it refers back to the primary fear of castration or to be more specific the sideways movement between objects in this case the horse and the father is itself explained as determined by a repression of the idea to which the effect was originally attached the threat of castration I would suggest that the sideways movement between objects which works to stick objects together as science of threat is shaped by multiple histories the movement between signs does not have its origin in the psyche but is a trace of how histories remain alive in the present we can consider for instance how the language of racism sustains fear through displacement and how the surfaces through bodies take the following quote from friends font phenols black skin white masks quote frontspin olds about black skin white masks quote my body was given back to me sprawled out distorted recolored clad in mourning in the white winter day the Negro is an animal the Negro was bad the Negro was mean the Negro was ugly look it’s an n-word it’s cold the n-word is shivering because he is cold the little boy is trembling because he is afraid of the n-word the n-word is shivering with cold that cold that goes through your bones the handsome little boy is trembling because he thinks that the n-word is curved when covering with rage the little boy throws himself into his mother’s arms mama the n-word is going to eat me up here fear is felt as coldness it makes bodies shiver with a cold that moves from the surface into the depths of the body as a cold that goes through your bone fear boats envelops the bodies that feel it as well as constructs those bodies as enveloped as contained by it as if it comes from the outside and moves inward in the encounter fear does not bring the bodies together it is not a shared feeling but works to differentiate between white and black bodies the white child miss recognizes the Shivering of the black body as rage and hence as the grounds for its fear in other words the other is only red as fearsome through misrecognition a reading that is returned by the black other through its response of fear as a fear of the white subjects fear this is not to say that the fear comes from the white body as if it is the origin of that fear and its author rather fear opens up past histories that stick to the present in the very reversal of childhood fantasies about being eaten up that take on the value of social norms as truths about the other and allow the white body to be constructed as a part from the black body we might note here that fear does something it reestablishes distance between bodies whose difference is read off the surface as a reading that reproduces the surface shivering recoloring but what is very clear here is that the object of fear remains the black man who comes to fuel the fear as his own as threatening his existence fear does not come from within the subject nor does it reside in its object we are not afraid of others because they are fearsome through the circulation of signs of fear the black other becomes fearsome but doesn’t this example show us that fear does get contained by an object in this place case the black man to some extent this is right the circulation of signs of fear does lead to containment for some and movement for others here fear gets contained in a body which henceforth becomes an object of fear indeed the white child’s apparent fear does not lead to containment but an expansion indeed the white child’s apparent fear does not lead to containment but an expansion his embrace of the world is suggested by how he reestablishes himself as being at home the embrace of the mother as a return home it is the black subject the one who fears the impact of the white child’s fear who is crushed by that fear by being sealed into a body that takes up less space in other words fear works to restrict some bodies through the movement or expansion of others but this containment is an effect of movement between signs as well as bodies such movements depend on past histories of association negro animal bad mean ugly in other words it is the movement of fear between signs which allows the object of fear to be generated in the present the Negro is an animal bad mean ugly the movement between signs is what allows others to be attributed with emotional value in this case as being fearsome and the attribution that depends on a history that sticks and which does not need to be declared the containment is provisional insofar as the black man is the object of fear that he may pass by indeed the physicality of his passing by can be associated with the passing of fear between signs it is the movement that intensifies effect the black man becomes even more threatening if he passes by his proximity is imagined then as the possibility of future injury as such the economy of fear works to contain the bodies of others a containment whose success relies on its failure as it must keep open the very grounds of fear in this sense fear works as an effective economy despite how it seems directed towards an object fear does not reside in a particular object or sign and it is this lack of residence that allows fear to slide across science and between bodies this sliding becomes stuck only temporarily in the very attachment of a sign to a human body whereby the sign sticks to a body by constituting as the object of fear a constitution taken on by the body encircling it with a fear that then becomes its own the sideways movement of fear where we have a metonymic and sticky relation between signs is also a backward movement objects of fear becomes substituted for each other over time this substitution involves the passing by of the objects for which the subject seems to flee fear and anxiety create the very effect of that which I am NOT through the very effect of turning away from an object which nevertheless threatens as it passes buyer is displaced to this extent fear does not involve the defense of borders that already exists rather fear makes those borders by establishing objects from which the subject in fearing can stand apart objects that become the knot from which the subject appears to flee through fear not only is the very border between self and other affected but the relation between the objects feared rather than simply the relation between object and its objects is shaped by histories that stick by making some objects more than others seem fearsome global economies of fear we can think more precisely about the processes through which fear works to secure forms of the collectives my argument is not that there is a psychic economy of fear that then becomes social and collective rather the individual subject comes into being through it’s very alignment with the collective it is the very failure of effect to be located in the subject or object that allows it to generate the surfaces of collective bodies the complexity of the spatial and bodily politics of fear has perhaps never been so apparent and in the global economies of fear since September 11th there is of course named in the very naming of terrorism terrorists are immediately identified as agents of extreme fear that is those who seek to make others afraid less mobile or less free to move as well as those who seek to cause death and destruction as the Australian Prime Minister John Howard puts it bin Laden’s hatred for the United States and for a world system built on individual freedom religious tolerance democracy and the International free flow of Commerce means that he wants to spread fear create uncertainty and promote instability hoping that this will cause communities and countries to turn against one another Howard then reads the acts of terror has attacks not only on the mobility of international capital but also on the mobility of the bodies of Australians on their right to move around the world with ease and freedom and without fear I would like to offer an alternative reading of what moves and what sticks inferior economies one that differentiates between forms of mobility as well a different different kinds of bodily enclosure containment or detainment in the first instance we can imagine how the mobility of the bodies of subjects in the West while presented as threatened is also defended along with the implicit defense of the mobility of capital in the global economy whereby capital is constructed as clean money and defined ins the dirty money of terrorism which much must be frozen or blocked the most immediate instruction made to subjects and citizens in America Australia and Britain was to go about your daily business to travel to spend or consume and so on as a way of refusing to be a victim of terror indeed in the United States citizens were in effect asks not to fear and the nation was represented as not being afraid as a way of showing the failure of the terrorist act attacks to destroy the nation as george w bush put it it is natural to wonder if America’s future is one of fear some speak of an age of terror I know there are struggles ahead and dangers to face but this country will define our times not be defined by them as long as the United States is determined and strong this will not be an age of Terror the nation is constructed as having prevailed through refusing to transform its vulnerability and wounds into fear a response that would be read in terms of this narrative as determination by terror rather than self-determination Bush then an act of self-determination turned the act of terror into an act of war which would seek to eliminate the source of fear and transform the world into a place where the mobility of some capital and sub bodies becomes a sign of freedom and civilization this suggests that the effect of terror was not containment but provided the very grounds for immobilization this is not to say however that individuals and groups have not experienced fear in response to the events the effects of fear are clear in for example the huge reduction in air travel however we need to think about this containment carefully without assuming that fear simply brings people together or that containment is the only effect of such fear as I have already noted following Heidegger the object of fear may pass by and this structural possibility is part of the lived perience of fear while the events did happen and did constitute an object however much it passed by a passing by that was already at stake in a living out of the present given the mediate ization of the event as event that fiercely quickly into anxiety in which what was at stake was not the approach of an object but an approach to an object the approach to the event in which it is repeated and transformed into a fetish object involved forms of alignment whereby individuals aligned themselves with the nation as being under attack this of course repeats the process of alignment whereby the nation aligned itself with individuals as having been or being attacked now what is crucial here is not just that this alignment might restrict the mobility of individuals who now feel themselves in a way that is personal to be terrorist targets rather the mediating work of this alignment experiences of fear become lived as patriotic declarations of love which allowed home itself to be mobilized as a defense against terror if subjects stayed at home that homes become transformed into the symbolic space of the nation to their widespread use of American flags this is not to say that the meaning of flags is necessary to its circulation as if such Flags could only signify national love rather we can consider how the flag is a sticky sign whereabouts stickiness allows it to stick to other flag signs which gives the impression of coherence the nation s sticking together the flag is a sign that has historically signified territorial conquest as well as love for the nation patriotism has effects in its terms of the displays of witness where a by one is with others and against other others George Packer in an article in the New York Times Magazine expressed as well as Flags bloomed like flowers I found they tapped emotion as quickly as pictures of the missing to me these flags didn’t represent flag flabby complacence but alertness grief resolved even love they evoked fellow-feeling flirt with Americans for with where we had been attacked together the turning away from the object of fear hence may involve a turning toward home as a fellow feeling that turning toward involves the repetition or reiteration of science fellowship that turning could even be understood as compulsory not to display a flag can be read as a sign of a lack of fellowship or even as the origin of terror to paraphrase George W Bush if you do not show us you are with us you would be seen as against us fear mediated by love as identification with the nation which becomes to adhere as an effect of signs of love does not necessarily shrink bodies the turning away from the object of fear here involves a turning towards home fear mediated by this form of love love is identification does not necessarily shrink bodies but may even allow them to occupy more space to the identification with the collective body which stands in for the individual body and moves on its behalf in other words the apparent containment of some bodies in the United States functions as a form of mobilization staying at home allows the mobilization of bodies through the symbolic identification with the nation at war in george w bush’s State of the Union address in 2002 the effect of this identification is clear It was as if our entire country looked into the mirror and saw our better selves hence the United States is defined as caught by its own reflection in the mirror a catching out that borders on collective narcissism self-love becomes a national love that legitimizes legitimates the response to terror as the protection of loved ones who are with me we’re a by witness is premised on signs of likeness and wearable likeness becomes an imperative or a condition of survival so if the event of terror of seeking to cause fear leads to a defense of the mobility of capital and the mobilisation of some bodies through both the defense of the home as nation and the identification with the nation then who is contained through terror whose vulnerability is at stake as has been well documented the events of September 11th have been used to justify the detention of anybody suspected of being terrorists not only was their immediate detention of suspects in the United States and European countries but governments in the West have responded to the terror by enacting legislation that increases the governmental rights to taint suspected of being a terrorist the British amendment to the Terrorism Act 2000 states that the Secretary of State may issue a certificate if he believes that the person’s presence ignited Kingdom is a risk to national security or he suspects the person is an international terrorist here risk assessment becomes a matter of belief and suspicion itself becomes the grounds for detention the extension of the powers of detention is not merely symbolic nor does it merely relate to the detention of terrorists given the structural possibility that anybody could be a terrorist what we have reinstituted and extended is the power of detention as such however the structural possibility that anyone could be a terrorist does not translate into everybody being affected by the extension of powers of detention in the same way it is well documented that people have been detained because of very weak links between them and terrorist networks often involving simple links through names or workplaces or residence areas TDR Zoll Berg considers this process a form of racial profiling quoting details reported in The New Yorker of the 1147 people detained in the United States between September 11th and November 2001 some were identified on the basis of circumstantial links with the attack but many were picked up on the basis of tips over people of Middle Eastern or South Asian descent who had been stopped for traffic violations or for acting suspiciously as Munir ahmed describes after September 11th there was an unrelenting multivalent assault on the body psyches and rights of Arab Muslim and South Asian immigrants indeed letti volt suggests that the responses to September 11th facilitated a new identity category that groups together people who appear Middle Eastern Arab or Muslim the recognition of such groups of people as could be terrorists depends on stereotypes already in place at the same time as it generates a distinct category of the fearsome in the present we can recall price precisely the repetition of stereotypes about the black man in the encounter described by friend’s phone all this repetition works by generating the other as an object of fear a fear that is then taken on as its importantly the word terrorist sticks to somebody’s as it reopens past histories of naming just as it slides into other words in the accounts of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq such as fundamentalism Islam Arab representative repressive primitive indeed the slide of men anomie metonymy can function as an implicit argument about the causal relationships between terms such as Islam and terrorism within the making of truths and worlds but in such a way that it does not require an explicit statement the work done by metonymy means that it can remake links it can stick words like terrorist and Islam together even when arguments are made that seem to unmake those links utterances like this is not a war against Islam coexist with description such as Islamic terrorists which work to restate the words together and constant constant their coincidence as more than the sliding between signs also involves sticking signs to bodies the bodies who could be terrorists are the ones who might look Muslim given that the event became an object that allowed certain forms of violence and detention of others in the name of defense made to ask what role the security play in the effective politics of fear importantly security is bound up with the knot what is not me or not us as Michael no Dylan has suggested security is not simply about securing a border that already exists nor is fear simply a fear of what we are not as I argued in the previous section anxiety and fear create a very the very effect of borders and their very effect of that which we are not partly through how we turn away from the other whom we imagined as the cause of our fear borders are constructed and indeed police on the very feeling that they have already been transgressed the other has has to get too close in order to be recognized as an object of fear and in order for the object to be displaced the transgression of the border is required in order for it to be secured as a border in the first place this is why the politics of fear as well as hate is narrated as a border anxiety fear speaks the language of floods and so of being invaded by inappropriate others against whom the nation must defend itself we can reflect then on the anthology of insecurity within the constant Constitution of the political it must be presumed that things are not secure in and of themselves in order to justify the imperative to make things secure more specifically it is through announcing a crisis and security that new forms of security border policing and surveillance become justified we only have to think about how narratives of crisis are used within politics to justify a return to values and traditions that are perceived to be under threat it is not simply that these crises exist and that fears and anxieties come into being as a necessary effect of that existence rather it is the very production of the crisis that is crucial to declare a crisis is not to make something out of nothing such declarations often work with real events facts or figures as we can see for example and how the rise and divorce rates is used to announce a crisis in marriage and the family but the declaration of crisis reads the fact figure event and transforms it into a fetish object that then acquires a life of its own in other words that can become the grounds for declarations of war against that which is read as the source of the threat through designating something as already under threat in the present that very thing becomes installed as the truth which we must fight for in the future a fight that is retrospectively understood to be a matter of life and death indeed it is the fear of death of the death of oneself ones loved ones ones community ones people that is generated by such narratives to preserve or maintain that which is so I might fear for myself for us or on behalf of others since September 11th the deaths have become symbolic of that which is under threat not only by terrorists those who take life but by all that the possibility of terrorism stands for a possibility linked by some commentators to internal forms of weakness such as secularization multiculturalism and the decline of social and familial ties for example Jerry Falwell the United States argued I really believe that the pagans and the abortionists and the and the gays and lesbians who are actively trying to make an alternative lifestyle all of them who have tried to secularize America I point the finger in their face and say you help this happen in the United States the British National Party’s response to September 11th was to posit this Lammas ization within the United Kingdom rather than the Taliban in Afghanistan as the threat to the moral future of the nation itself quote they can turn Britain into an Islamic Republic by 2025 this attribution of the crime of terror to the weakening of religious religion and community posed by the presence of various others has been of course condemned within mainstream politics although noticeably with less of an disgust reaction than how some critics of u.s. foreign policy have been received however at the same time a broader set of assumptions around what would be required to defend the nation in the world strengthening the will of the community in the face of others both displaces and reworks the narrative logic instead of an internal weakness being posited as responsible for this event we have an internal strength being positive as responsible for recovery survival and moving beyond fear as george w bush put it these acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat but they have failed our country is strong the response to terror becomes a way of strengthening the bonds of the nation in the global community of free nations the wound of charity requires sticking together adherence as coherence and using the values that make America and democracy quote strong indeed the emphasis on security in george w bush’s State of the Union address in 2002 includes the transformation of democratic citizenship into policing and as government works to secure our homeland America will continue to depend on the eyes and ears of alert citizens citizenship is here translated into a form of neighborhood watch the citizen must look out for suspicious others citizenship works as a way to police the boundaries of neighborhoods the role of citizens as police is translated as an imperative to love in which love becomes the foundation of community as well as the guarantor of our future our country also needs citizens working to rebuild our communities we need mentors to love children the definition of values that will allow America to prevail in the face of terror values that have been named as freedom love and compassion involves the defense of particular institutional and social forms against the danger posed by others such values function to define not only a deal’s that supposedly govern war aims and objectives but democratic norms of behavior and conduct of what it means to be civil a civil society and a legitimate government to be brought into international civil society that is to not be named as a rogue state are part of the axis of evil others must mimic these rules of conduct and forms of governance henceforth the emphasis on values truths and norms that will allow survival slides easily into the defense of particular social forms or institutions we might note here that these social forms become identified as better by being defined as open liberal democracy and with it a weak model of racial and religious tolerance as well as an apparent liberal support for feminism become defined as what is good about the United States in opposition to the closed and fundamentalist politics of the Islamic other hence respect for women and religious tolerance become divine defined as two of the values that make America and the free world strong such an argument allows the war to be narrated as saving women from religious fundamentalism this is a familiar narrative and one that has a long Imperial history as many feminist critics have argued such a narrative overlooks not only the heterogeneity of other cultures and the existence of women’s resistance and feminist networks in Islamic worlds including in Afghanistan but also the maintenance of gendered as well as other forms of oppression in the United States and the so-called free world we need to think about the political effects of this hierarchy between open and closed cultures and show how the constitution of open cultures involves the per deck project of what is closed unto others and hence the concealment of what is closed and contained at home furthermore the fear of degeneration as a mechanism for preserving social forms become associated more with some bodies than with others the threat of some others to social forms which are the materialization of norms is represented as the threat of turning away from the values that will guarantee survival these various others come to embody the failure of the norm to take form it is the proximity of such other bodies that causes the fear that formed some civilization the family the community the nation an international civil society have degenerated those who speak out against the truth of this world become aligned then with the terrorists we’re seeking to cause the ruin of the world what is important then is that the narratives that seek to preserve the present through working on anxieties of death as the necessary consequence of the demise of social forms also seek to locate that anxiety in some bodies which then take on fetish qualities as objects of fear such bodies engendered even more fear as they cannot be held in places objects and threatened to pass by that is we may fail to see that those forms that have failed to be it is always possible that we might not be able to tell the difference the present hence becomes preserved by defending the community against the imagined others who may take form in ways that cannot be anticipated a not yet Ness that means the work of defense is never over such defenses generated by anxiety and fear for the future and justifies the elimination or exclusion of that which fails to materialize in the form of the norm as a struggle for survival insofar as we do not know what forum us others other other others may take those who fail to materialize in the forms that are lived as norms the policies of continual surveillance of emergent forms is sustained as an ongoing project of survival it is here that we can deepen our reflections on the role of the figure of the terrorists within economies of fear crucially the narrative that justifies the expansion of the powers to detain others within the nation and the potential expansion of the war itself to other nations relies on the structural possibility that the terrorists could be anyone and anywhere the narrative of the could be terrorists in which the terrorist is the one who hides in the shadows has a double edge on the one hand to the figure of the terrorists is detached from particular bodies as a shadowy figure an unspecified may come to pass but it is this could be necessitate which also allows restriction on the mobility of those bodies who are read is associated with terrorism Islam Arab Asian East fear sticks to these bodies and to the bodies of road states that could be terrorists where the could be opens up the power to detain although such fear sticks it also slides across such bodies it is the structural possibility that the terrorists may pass us by that justifies the expansion of these forms of intelligence surveillance and the rights of detention fear works here to expand the mobility of some bodies and contain others precisely insofar as it does not reside positively in any one body as Samuel Weber puts it when terrorism is defined as an international it becomes difficult to locate situate personify and identify and it is this difficulty that justifies the expansions of power and the state it is important to recognize that the figure of the international terrorists has been mobilized in close proximity to the figure of the asylum seeker the slide between these two figures does an enormous amount of work it assumes that those who seek asylum who flee from terror and persecution may be bogus insofar as they could be the very agents of terror and persecution they like terrorists are identified as potential burglars as unlawful intruders into the nation in Australia for example the refusal to allow the boat Tampa into its waters with this cargo of 433 asylum seekers many of whom were family Janice tan those retrospectively justified on the grounds that those on board could be linked to Osama bin Laden the sticking together of the figures of the asylum seeker and the international terrorist which already evokes other figures the burglar the bogeyman constructs those who are without home as sources of our fear and as reasons for new forms of border policing whereby the future is always a threat posed by others who may pass by and pass their way into the community the slide of metonymy works to generate or make likeness the asylum seeker is like the terrorist an agent of fear who may destroy our home the slide between figures involves the containment of others who henceforth become the objects of fear the containment of the bodies of others affected by this economy of fear is most chillingly and violently revealed in the literal deaths of those seeking asylum in containers deaths that remain unmourned by the very nations who embody the hope of a future for those seeking asylum this is a chilling reminder of what is at stake in the effective economies of fear you

Academic Writing: Essay Format — English for Academic Purposes with Josh #16

all right everybody welcome hello hello it’s good to see everybody here it is a beautiful sunny day in Spokane Washington USA I’m happy to be here with you and be your teacher for the day we’re gonna continue on with some English for academic purposes it’s one of my favorite classes to teach because it’s preparing you for university or to be successful in your business or job communication skills are so important and they can really provide great opportunities in your lives I feel very grateful for having good teachers myself when I was in university and even high school they encouraged me to learn public speaking skills and ways to articulate language such that the people I am talking to get my real meaning the strongest meaning that I’m trying to convey so we’re going to do that in this class and we have been doing that so hello everybody it looks like someone’s here ah Bashir hello welcome is this your first time is it Muhammad or is it a Bashir so let me know what you’d like me to call you Selma of course hello Rosa hello Romo hi good to have you here you’re super tired today I’m sorry about that hopefully you can get some coffee and stay awake for our lesson nappy nappy happy I doubt that’s your real name but if that’s what you wanted me to call you great welcome is this your first class if so we’re happy to have you if you’ve taken a class before let me know first time for abdel-rahman welcome hello what country are you from we have some amazing students from all these different countries we have students from Pakistan from India from Algeria students from Colombia and Mexico all right yes so welcome and Lassa Lassa Lassa is that right is this your first class if so welcome we’re happy to have you Oh Saudi Arabia Abdul Rahman welcome we have students here at our College from Saudi Arabia some from Jeddah and some from smaller towns that are a few hours from Jeddah but it’s always good to to have all these cultures come together with the common goal of learning English we love that and special thanks to our premium subscribers I see roses here Rosa always a pleasure happy to have you in class and Selma thank you for being here as always you guys are amazing students and we love to treat you to our special premium subscriber features which I’ll talk about just a little bit before we get started with our lesson today so our smart live classes if you’re coming here for the first time or if you’re returning and a premium subscriber I’ll go over sort of what our premium subscribers are getting and if you want to become one you can your first month is free so here’s our lesson or lesson outline for our smart live classes so the smart lives in the English class that’s streamed on YouTube and you have a Canadian or American teacher I’m an American teacher go America it’s it’s a great campus that we have here and I’m in the studio I’m in a production studio right here so we got to do these classes for you but you can come and study here in Spokane if you want it’s a beautiful city we have great international community and it’s a great place to learn English because we have 91% native speakers and our accents here in the Pacific Northwest this region it’s one of the best regions to study in because our accents are very common across America if you study somewhere like Texas or Mississippi Americans speak very differently there and their accents sometimes are so strange to even Americans that we have a hard time understanding them they’re also beautiful accents and they’re very fun to listen to but it can be difficult if we if we try to study English in some of these places so abdul-rahman asks if I’m with Trump no no he’s it’s just a bunch of it’s a bunch of Hollywood media hype he doesn’t really have that much power that power the president is not that strong and a lot of people are asking questions about it and I’m sure you’re interested but to Americans it’s not really a big deal nothing truly changes in our country it’s it’s a lot of people that make change and the people in America are the ones that really make any sort of changes so really it doesn’t make a big difference I don’t like the guy and I love that I have the freedom in America to say that you know I can go out in the streets and say I don’t like our president and nothing bad happens that’s not true in every country so it’s nice to live in America and have these freedoms to be able to say and do whatever we want basically as long as it doesn’t harm anybody so yeah that’s it’s hopefully that answers some of your questions if you were wondering about what it’s like in America right now it’s the same as it was when Obama was president nothing has changed and we’re still teaching these amazing classes and still enjoying all the freedoms that America offers so it’s really nice so again back to our smart live class this class is invite only for between five and thirty students so Rosa and Selma I’ll keep talking about them because they’re two of our wonderful premium subscribers that are in class today and they get from us 12-week course with two hours per week and they get a little more than that too because I meet with them on hangouts I’m gonna do a short hang out today so Rosa’s almost stick around I’ll invite you guys to the hangout after class and you get one-on-one time with me to ask me any individual questions you want and that’s that’s really nice I like doing that because I get a really connect with students rose and I are working on an essay and some homework you get access to our smart curricula which I will show you here we’re gonna go over this lesson in just a little bit but you get access to a ton of information there’s lots of different levels and lots of different classes that you get to explore I’ve taught almost all of these classes in my history teaching here at the Spokane College of English language but there’s tons of great information and resources that you get access to you also get homework that is marked by me if you’re a premium subscriber and you get to email me anytime you want and get lesson feedback in the form of videos and audio clips that are extra besides the free YouTube clips and then you’ll get an English certification for graduates of the program so Rosa you’re on track Selma you’re on track to do that good work you guys are doing amazing you get a lot more practice and it’s nice to have practice from a native speaker and I can answer specific questions you have it’s kind of the best way to learn English so if you can’t travel to America or Canada this is a great alternative to that hi everybody soo soo Miah hi how are you it’s good to see you back thanks for coming Luciana of course great to see you again as well so we have beginner English intermediate English advanced English and English for academics academic purposes that’s what class you’re in right now I of course am your teacher Joshua and this class is for two hours a week and it runs on Tuesdays and Thursdays at 8 o clock p.m. GMT or 2:30 p.m. actually I’m not sure that that time is correct we don’t use the 24-hour time system here in America so I’m not sure exactly what time that is but 2:30 is the time that we run our class p.m. Pacific Standard Time so right now is when we’re doing it and yeah it’s a great great opportunity I think I really am excited about it and it want more information I’m gonna copy these links in the chat so you can check it out yourself so if you’re interested in becoming a subscriber then go to that link and check it out you’re on our YouTube page subscribe and check out our other teachers we have Nicole and Neil here in America at our College they’re amazing teachers and up in Canada our sister college we have mark and Sean who are also amazing teachers they’re great at what they do you should check out all of their classes so that’s our youtube link smart English YouTube link and ok 20 to 30 GMT Thank You rose I appreciate that and good morning Nilofer good to see you back as well I also would like you guys to join our Facebook group if you can there’s lots of great discussions and quizzes that are on there that are free as well and like I said you can get a month free just for signing up and there’s no obligation you don’t have to you don’t have to continue but we hope you do because we love having our premium subscribers if you do want to come study with me in person I’ll give you a high five you can have lunch with us and all the teachers we have great lunches every day with all our students we do activities here in Spokane we’d have conversation club and we’ll go to the fair we have a running club a volunteer club chess club I’m a big nerd I love chess that’s a great game we do lots of really fun activities with our students we go to theme parks or go play in the the park that’s right next to our college campus it’s a beautiful city and you can join our Spokane College Facebook page too it’s not just for our students it’s for anyone who wants to learn English and and talk to our students and ask them questions Selma I wish you could study here too I hope you can someday okay and okay so Rosa was watching Shawn’s class before this one yeah that’s great Shawn is an amazing teacher he’s the director of the Canadian College of English language much like I am the director of the Spokane College of English language so I’m a teacher I’m also the director here so if you have questions about applying or wanting to come study here you can send me an email my email is Joshua dot live at smart that’s SMRT English comm so please check us out like I said if you want to to come study here with us just just go to this link you can apply it looks like Abdul Rahman you want to graduate and come study at our College awesome please do that would be awesome when do you graduate is it soon are you a senior Junior you’re in high school or college maybe I don’t know it’s your first time so I haven’t had a chance to meet you yet Viva hey you are a little late but don’t worry I haven’t started the lesson I’m just talking about the opportunity to become a premium subscriber and discussing my awesome college here where I work I like to for our new students show you the campus this is our website our College website and you’ll see right here this is the college campus this is inside it’s a really brand new building very cool this is right next to our campus it’s our clock tower and park our park just got sixty five million dollars to build new things there so there’s gonna be a lot of new activities and things to do that are right next to our college campus which is awesome so excited okay up total Anson college and you’re you’re after year two so if you’re you’re in year three if it’s two you’re a sophomore if it’s year three you are a junior and your last year if it’s a four year college you are a senior same words for high school we say freshman sophomore junior and senior freshman sophomore junior senior so now you guys know the terms for that anyway we partner with four-year universities and community colleges and technical schools so there’s a lot of pathways to if you wanted to get a master’s degree or a PhD or or an undergrad degree like bachelors we have those programs where you can go directly from our school to them with no TOEFL no aisles they’re our partners and our friends so we send our students directly there with no trouble it’s a great program and it’s a great opportunity so please feel free to apply to our college or if you have questions send me an email I have a posh accent Nilofer that’s an interesting adjective I would never describe myself as posh but thank you that’s a very kind compliment I appreciate it okay enough about the college and me I hope to see you guys in person someday and meet you face-to-face I would love for you to visit Spokane but until then how about we study some English together so for premium subscribers you can go to this link in smart I’ll paste it in the chat there for it to be easy for you but we’ve been talking in this class about different aspects of English that are valuable for academic purposes so if you’re in University and you want to write papers in English or if it’s an english-speaking university this information will help you it’s very valuable we’ve talked about APA guidelines we’ve talked about writing strategy reading strategy outlines how to transition between body paragraphs we’ve talked about identifying and creating general statements and thesis statements all of these things are so important to academic writing I’ve had students from Mexico that our marine biologists that are publishing papers all over the world in English I’ve had students that are philosophy majors psychology majors doctors medical students and these students get to do amazing incredible things in their work and they need this information so I’m so happy and grateful to be able to teach you this information and hopefully make your lives more productive and more goal oriented towards towards your aspirations I want you guys to achieve your goals so Luciano says what does posh mean posh is kind of like it’s like refined or or dignified or like fancy in a way we we don’t use it very often actually it’s not a very common adjective but it’s good and most Americans know what it means it’s someone who might wear you know very formal clothes and and have an elegant style okay so sumaya you say Josh could you give me any advice about improving my speaking skills yes of course here’s some general advice for everybody before we start our lesson on essay skills if you want speaking skills there’s a couple things you should do listen to native speakers and if you have the opportunity make friends with native speakers build a friendship with someone in America you know reach out on our Facebook page to some of our students or our teachers and you know we’ll try to talk to you as much as possible when we’re not in our classes teaching our students here at the college but if you have other opportunities to meet Americans if you want to learn American English which I of course think is the best kind of English then then make friends and practice with them listen to them also when you hear an Americans speak when you hear me speak try to copy me try to copy my pronunciation copy the way I speak some students are hesitant to do that and I don’t know if it’s in class at least if they feel like they’re going to offend or or if it’s wrong to do it’s not it’s a good thing to do you should try to copy your teachers and speak as they do it will help you reduce your accent and and pronounce your English words correctly yeah mimic Rosa has a great word for that mimic mimic is a verb that means to imitate to try to sound exactly like someone else we do this when we pretend to have accents like the Australian accent they pronounce their Y sound very long they’ll say likely likely and so we try to do that when we’re here in America we’ll try to sound Australian and over pronounce our are wise and vowel sounds okay so that’s one way you can do it the best way of course is to go and live immerse yourself in an english-speaking country of all the students I’ve ever taught the students who learn learn fastest our students who move to America for a short time and they live in the culture they live with the language all around them all the time and for example our homestay program here at our college allows you to live with American families so you’re hearing English your whole day all your day here with your teachers and then at home with your American family so that’s the best way but if you can’t travel try to make as many American friends as you can Skype with them hang out with them become a premium subscriber so you and I can do that those are very good ways to practice the third suggestion I’ll give you is record yourself listen to yourself we don’t hear ourselves the same when we’re speaking like this but when I go back and watch this video if I watch this video I would notice if I make any mistakes I would notice if I say a word incorrectly or if I miss a word in my sentence so use your your smartphone use your webcam use your laptop whatever record yourself and do it once a week least and watch yourself just five minutes of you talking and then as time goes on after a few months go back and watch your first video and compare it to your more recent videos see what kind of improvement you had made and see what kind of mistakes you make often so that you can think about them identify them and correct them so that’s my advice for how to improve your speaking skills in English if you have more questions feel free to email me and I’m happy to answer them but I want to get started with the lesson I’m so happy to have you guys here in class and I’d like to discuss the topic of essay layout today so for three classes we discussed APA formatting and how to correctly craft our paper but I want to return to that first class and just go over the basic layout of an of an essay and we’re gonna start with a little tutorial here in Google Docs if you’re not familiar with Google Docs I highly suggest learning the basics of Google Docs there’s some great videos online I have a tutorial video I can share with our premium subscribers which will help also but it’s a very valuable free resource so you can write academic papers and I’ll show you what I mean if I go into Google Docs it’s much like Microsoft Word or pages you can create a document you can create a title so I’m going to title this one essay outline example okay and you have most the same tools here you can change the font the format so sumaya thank you I appreciate that comment that’s very nice I’m glad you think I’m a great teacher so for our returning students so Luciana Rosa Selma what is the correct font and size to use for academic papers I’m going to quiz you a little bit and see if remember first one to answer gets props from me in the comments there and I’m just looking at your questions Rosa says she’s trying to apply that with ko vivec and Zara trying to apply what Rosa trying to practice speaking is that what you’re talking about vivec says mimic is not a good word to describe copying it’s used in a negative way i mimicked my friend when he wasn’t around and others laughed at my mimicking you’d want to say mimicking but V BEC I’m sorry I have to correct you there that’s not quite correct mimic is not a bad word mimic is okay mimic is is a fine word that just means to copy the word that I think you are thinking of is mock to mock sometimes people do use mimic in a bad way it doesn’t always have a negative connotation though we could say that a parrot mimics human speech a parrot I think we all know these animals right this was from an earlier class a parrot is the bird that can really colorful bird that can mimic human speech so these these are animals that can produce sounds linguistically that are similar to the sounds that humans produce so mimics not bad mock would be to mock someone is to to pretend to be like them but in an insulting way in a negative way so if we’re mocking someone we’re not being nice if we’re mimicking someone it’s it’s okay copying is a fine word too but thank you for pointing that out any time we use language that you want more explanation of or that you agree or disagree with please write a comment because I want to discuss these things okay so we have our excellent answers here says New Roman times new roman’ size 12 you’re right Selma had it as well V vacu had it good job that’s excellent and Luciana so good job everybody and Luciana also says listen to American music yeah you’re right that’s a good good way to practice hearing pronunciation music isn’t always the best though because sometimes singing is different than the way we actually pronounce the words but it is one good way to do it watch movies watch Netflix watch American television all good resources they might use bad grammar in movies and television so be careful of that but you will get experienced to common language of our culture Selma I am in the future it’s Friday they’re awesome I’m a time traveler so cool I love that um so everybody said the correct answer Times New Roman size 12 avi Beck no no mean sentences come on I know you’re joking with Rosa but hates such a bad word my grandmother says hate is too strong of a word to use with something you don’t like it’s one of my favorite quotes from my grandmother so mock is to make fun of someone and this is great because I needed some text here to use to explain how to change the default settings in your Google Drive so Rosa Selma premium subscribers I’d like you to do this with me if you can we’re gonna change the settings for our Google Documents so that every time we open a new one it’s all ready to go for us it’s already prepared if we open a new document by default its Arial and size 11 but that’s not what we want we want to change it to Times New Roman size 12 so open a new document and type any word just a single word and then select it all select everything there and click on your font and change it to Times New Roman if you don’t see it click on more fonts and search but it should be there Times New Roman and change it to size 12 and if you want these directions you can just go to google and type type Google Doc default font or settings and this will come right up to set a preferred font so we open a file we type our text and we highlight the text and then you go to the tool bar and we go to the format option right here so tool bar format and we go down to paragraph Styles and we go update normal text to match okay update normal text to match so again format paragraph Styles options oh excuse me normal text update normal text to match then the next the next step here is we go back to format I’m gonna back off your just a little bit not too far so we can see all the options format paragraph Styles options and then save as my default styles okay oh I did want to change one more thing too so keep your text highlighted this option right here if you see this one right here it’s like the center option but it’s line spacing so go to that option and we want to click double double spaced your professors if you’re studying at university will probably ask you to double space your papers they might not they might have variants they might have you do different settings but most professors at in english-speaking countries like Times New Roman size 12 double-spaced so if we can set this we don’t have to change it every time so again we’re going to select our text format paragraph Styles normal text update normal text to match and then format paragraph Styles options and then in our options here I’m going to back out just a little bit we’re gonna say save as my default Styles okay and again those steps are free on Google to search for just type Google Docs document font or default settings or something like that and it’ll come right up for you so now I have APA style pre-saved to all of my Google Documents that I create and we can test it I can go in here and create a new document and we’ll see right there it’s saved it’s already Times New Roman size 12 C if I type its double-spaced see already saved for me it’s already there and you can of course change it back this is just a really nice way to make sure you’re always using the right formatting APA format so hopefully that is helpful abdul rahman AR abdul rahman the program is just Google Documents so if you have a gmail account we use gmail accounts at our college here here’s my gmail Joshua dot live at smart English comm and you get access for free to your drive which is a storage storage service where they allow you to store documents photos sound files videos basically anything you want to store you can store for free in Google Drive I store all my homework videos that I make our premium subscribers I store photos of the college Spokane College of English language some music sometimes I store in here it’s a really convenient place but you can also create essay documents you can create documents that somewhat you can share with someone and collaborate on or they can open it in Microsoft Word or pages if you’re running on a Mac computer so greetings from Mexico Danny hi how are you glad to have you here okay it looks like I’ve answered your question of dill Ramon so please change your settings if you can if you have questions about it Rosa Selma just send me an email or we’ll talk about it in our hangout after class today so we’re going to go over some more of our smart curricula here this curriculum for today is essay layout so imagine that you’ve already found your sources you’ve organized your ideas you’ve made your outline as we discussed in our previous class now our last step is to change our outline into sentences and paragraphs essentially to write our essay so we used a five paragraph structure in class which is the easiest way to teach the creation of an essay in English the first paragraph is your introduction paragraph it introduces the general idea and the basic topics for your supporting body paragraphs and then we choose three supporting body paragraphs because it’s important to get many sources of evidence to prove our thesis so we’ll use three body paragraphs to support our thesis and we end with a conclusion paragraph which is essentially a restatement of our thesis a summary of what we wrote and then we end with a big idea like a call to action or a argument on one side or the other of a topic do we apply this even when we write microsoft word — yes Rosa the same format I don’t know if there’s a way to save your default styles in Microsoft Word maybe but I encourage you to use Google Docs instead of Microsoft Word I think that it has just as many features and any features that it doesn’t have you’re not really gonna need in academic writing so it’s it’s just cleaner and faster and easier in my opinion I prefer Google Docs two pages or Microsoft Word I think it’s faster simpler and it’s easier to track your your history in the document I’ll show you something kind of cool here when you use Google Docs you can search for all your changes so if I started this last week and I made tons of changes you can go back and view what you changed you can view your edits and every single little change I made is stored here so I can go back and see when I typed when I deleted something and you can restore these earlier versions too so it saves them for you it’s um it’s a really valuable tool I think I know that I love it my other teachers love it my students love it so give it a shot test it out if you have questions let me know and I’m happy to help so luciana Wow I can’t pronounce the name of where you’re from is it rests ‘if receive is that right correct me if I’m wrong but I’m glad you’re here Jose I see you joined as well thank you for being here we’re talking about formatting for academic essays so those are the styles that we should use in our five paragraph essay or multi paragraph essay we do for APA format need to include a title page at the beginning and I’ll talk about the details of that in just a minute and also our reference page at the end which is also called bibliography or a works cited now bibliography is a little different but they’re all essentially the same they all have essentially the same purpose which is citing our sources telling our reader where we got our information this is so important in academic writing because we have to prove that where we got our information is credible to support our points for example if I tried to tell you that the earth is flat the earth is flat one you’re going to call me an idiot because it’s not flat it’s round right but you’re also gonna ask me well why do you think that how did you come to that conclusion and if I can’t prove to you facts and show you evidence of why I believe this to be true it’s it’s just me making something up right the the way that we had this revolution in science and history of moving from the idea of the earth being flat to round was supported by evidence supported by facts that that could be checked and that’s how academics work we come up with an idea and we prove it to be right or someone else proves us to be wrong and it’s through these academic arguments that in the world we achieve any progress so academic writing is something I’m very passionate about I believe that quality academic writing can make fundamental changes in our in our society in our world we’re a global community and we have to make positive changes and one way we can do that is by creating strong writing and sharing it with the world so and I’m not sure how to say your name is it ch is it Qi I I forget I think we talked about it last week but you said you you remember doing this when you wrote your thesis many hours without sleep yep yeah if you plan your essay out over a long time it’s easier but many students will write you know the week before or something or sometimes the night before which is a terrible idea but I’m not gonna say I haven’t done that myself so we’re gonna have our title page we’re gonna have our reference page and then we’re going to insert citations in our paragraphs but we’re just looking at the general format of the essay today to sort of wrap up our APA lesson the title page has three parts it has the header the title and personal information so your information or the author’s information chardee that’s right thank you Vivek Charlie okay let’s see here just making sure I’m watching everybody’s questions to make sure I don’t miss anything I didn’t see Google Docs as an option I was using Microsoft software does this kind of app help you save your documents online yes Danny Danny from Mexico right yes Google Docs is free if you have a gmail account you just sign up and you get it for free and it saves them for you so anytime you create a document you can always go back to your drive and it’s there waiting for you so let’s go ahead and create let’s create our title page so at the bottom of the title page is a proper blank our page break and I’ll show you how to make that in Google Docs you can insert page break or do control enter so let’s let’s go ahead and watch this quick video and it will show you an example of our formatting for our documents and this is a way to insert indents and tabs this is part of the smart curricula and premium subscribers you have access to this I will I’ll send you a link to our lesson that we’re on and yes to answer your question Luciana or maybe you are answering Danny’s question any words you type is automatically saved in Google Docs I’ll show you that again in just a minute but let’s watch this video about using indents and tabs and we’ll discuss after the video you I’ve written a letter that has several paragraphs and to make each paragraphs stand out just a little more I want to add a first line indent the easiest way to do this is to place your cursor also known as the insertion point at the beginning of a paragraph and then press the tab key you may have noticed that when I did this this little marker on the ruler moved forward 1/2 inch this is the first line indent marker there’s also the left indent marker and then all the way on the other side the right indent marker we can move them to create various types of indents they don’t affect the whole document though just the parts that are selected so let’s select all of these paragraphs now click hold and drag the first-line indent marker as the marker moves a blue guideline extends from the ruler the right indent is useful if you want to make the paragraph narrower and finally the left indent marker can be used to move all of the lines at the same time you can also adjust the left indent using the buttons on the toolbar these will increase or decrease the indent and half-inch increments but for this letter I want a more traditional look so I’m just going to do a first line indent of 1/4 of an inch and dents are a good way to keep things lined up in your document but for more complex documents such as resumes they’re not always enough I’d really like all of these dates to line up I could just use spaces but it’s going to be difficult or impossible to get them to line up exactly so I’ll need to use tabs if I place the insertion point right before the text I want to align and then press the tab key it’s going to jump forward in half-inch increments that works pretty well but I’d like to have a little more control over exactly how the text lines up I think a tab stop is exactly what we need here tap stops tell the text exactly where to line up so you’re not limited to half-inch increments just like with indents tab stops only apply to the selected text so select all of the text that you want to include in your tab stop next click the ruler where you’d like the tap stop to be you can choose to align your text to the left center or right of the tab stop in this example we’re going to align our text to the left now to align the dates we want to add just one tab before each date and they will jump to the new tab stop if there are more things that you’d like to align you can add more tab stops and to remove them just drag them off the ruler and they’ll disappear this looks a lot better now and I think having everything lined up gives it a neater more professional appearance okay so I think it’s valuable to to understand those features and just kind of refresh and remind ourselves how to do it if if we haven’t done that in a while it does it allows us to make our our documents look really clean and professional and when you submit an essay to your professors you want it to look clean and professional sometimes I have students change the font to crazy fonts with colors and stuff and while it may look interesting and colorful it’s distracting and it takes away from what really matters which is what they wrote down so be careful of that as you’re writing academically we want it to be Times New Roman size 12 double-spaced it’s more professional and more formal looking and important in the academic world so that is how to sort of format your your in that document your essays so I always have my students write their essays with half inch tabs and we’re going to have to do a little bit of formatting when it comes to our reference page we’ll get to that in a minute though back to our curricula here we have citations so we have n citations and here’s some examples I’m just going to copy these over and paste them into our document so that we can have some to sort of play with here and I can show you how to how to format our essay reference page so I’m going in here and I’m just taking these citations I’m just going to do two of them this is for our reference section so all of the sources that we used in our essay will go here and we have to use hanging indents so there’s another short video that I want to include in today’s lesson from our smart page and is how to use indents so we’re going to watch that really quick and then we’re actually going to do it together here in my Google Drive with the document so you can see another example of how it’s done you okay I’m not sure why hey the video did that but I just wanted to show uh show you guys how to do hanging indents so I’m just gonna do it here as an example for you you see that we highlight just the reference page here and we move our tab stop in that half inch and then we’re going to take this little top bar I’m gonna zoom in so you can see it see how there’s two little things here this is the indent this is the border line there we bring that back I’m gonna zoom out so you can see what it did there so again for our references we do a hanging indent which is just kind of a reverse a normal paragraph of course we indent the first line and we do not do spaces between them in APA formatting so it would look like this if these were paragraphs in our essay but this is not our essay this is our reference page so we do a hanging indent which looks exactly opposite of that so we highlight all the text in our reference page and we move the indent over to that half inch marker and then we move our line back to the original line so it will inevitably look like this so I’m just trying to get these to line up here and sorry I said half inch I mean inch so they will look like this and you see how I highlighted this paragraph but not this one it only changes what we highlight so we have to make sure to highlight all of our references and adjust the tabs accordingly so there we go this is a hanging indent and this is exactly the same in Microsoft Word or pages if you don’t see this little ruler here you just go to view and make sure that show ruler is checked otherwise you won’t have it in your document so make sure you have show ruler checked that way you can manipulate your index so it looks like Rosa you mentioned a computing class in English we do have English for with computer terminology and computer vocabulary available so um if you’re interested in that send me an email or send Zach an email we can give you more information about it and it looks like abdul-rahman is leaving so you can go watch the Brazil game $5.00 Mon thank you for coming glad this was your first class please come back again we’ll be here Tuesdays and Thursdays okay and let’s see yeah Rosa our premium subscribers she wants to be a journalist that’s awesome you should definitely travel and definitely keep writing because your writing is amazing your essays have been great so good work all right Luciana I’m not sure why you can’t hear anything maybe just check your settings or try headphones sometimes that solves the problem and let’s see here okay V Beck it sounds like he wants to be an author well you know what vivec if you are going to submit possibly a novel or some sort of book that you want to write nonfiction or fiction you will also probably use this same format to submit to publishers this is a very common format to submit anywhere professionally if you’re writing for a newspaper like Rosa wanting to be a journalist or if you want to try to publish a book same style you’re going to use this style probably so okay it looks like everyone understands this quite well so I’m gonna go back to our example here and we are going to open up an essay that was created for the same purpose now I’m gonna copy this document because the one thing that is not included in here which I will try to to amend is the the font this is not Times New Roman so let’s change it we’re gonna select everything go to Times New Roman size 12 and I also have to change the header this is called a document header you create this by going insert and then go down to header these are headers and footers it’s the space at the top of a page or the bottom of a page and with APA formatting we want to use the same font Times New Roman size 12 and basically this is a page number and the title of your essay so this is our title and the title is located the title is located at the top of the page here on its own centered it is the only thing that should be centered the title page in your essay everything else should be aligned to the left because that’s how we format in English that’s how we read from left to right but the title page can be centered Rosic looks like I missed something just go ahead and repeat your question for me if you had a question oh he Becky’s not coming to the class again but he’s gonna watch it later yeah oh of course no problem he can watch it later and he’ll get my comments then so this student is Bill Smith very American name and his class is smart 140 and his teacher is Chris Kelly so that is how we usually format our title we say the student name the class name the teacher’s name so really this could be me right and Rosa um use your name if you don’t mind just as an example here so we would use the student name the class name and then the teacher name and the date now this is the common way to write the date in English American English Canadian English and this one is okay but I tell my students sometimes if we use the numbers so there’s several ways to write the date some students will write the day for example today is November sorry about that sometimes students will write the date and they will use numbers so this is the 11th month November today is the tenth and the year is 2016 sorry there’s a there is a shortcut I put with the numbers on here so that’s why it keeps going to the other screen I apologize but this is in my opinion a terrible way to write the date because in many countries it goes not month day year but day month year so it’s very hard for someone internationally to tell if this is November 10th 2016 or October 11th 2016 so my advice is to always spell the month now you can do it this way or you can do it this way 27 June 2012 or 2016 or whatever I’ll use the date they have there this is my preferred way to write the date I just like it it’s cleaner I can abbreviate it 27 the three letters of the month and the year it’s really simple but either way is fine either way it is totally fine and honestly most of your teachers if they are teaching at an American University they will prefer you write the date this way so student name class name teacher name and date and your title goes up here so that is the format that’s how we create that I wanted to see if we have okay so half inch first line indent is APA formatting so we look here at our example essay and we scroll down so at the last line of our title page we’re gonna press ctrl enter and that is gonna cause a page break that means you cannot type anything down here on this page it will immediately start on the next page so here’s our indent and you notice it’s excuse me half an inch which is the same as one tab press of the tab key we went over that in an earlier video the title is repeated on the very first page and it’s of course also included in the header which repeats on every single page so when you insert this number you do do so by clicking insert and then page number and we put our page numbers at the top of the page okay this one skips the title page it’s not really a big deal either of these is fine because the title page is very obviously the first page so I accept both of those for my students essays that they submit so our title page control-enter the other way to do that instead of pressing ctrl enter is to say insert page break page break so that will bring you down to this Paige here half-inch indent and you can do that right from the start by just pressing tab or you can select your si in the end and then move all of the paragraphs at once if you wish and then this is our introduction paragraph you notice it’s all double-spaced but there is no extra space between the paragraphs many students will put a space like this and I tell them no please don’t it’s already double-spaced so the paragraphs can go next to each other the indent is what identifies the beginning of a new paragraph Luciana’s question is um let’s see here can we use the two final letters of the ordinal number like 27 th yes to answer your question about the date I believe you’re asking if you can include this 27th June 27th 2012 yes and if you do this sometimes you’ll see students not include the comma I still do it out of habit but again this is why I prefer because of all the options to just write 27 June sorry same shortcut 27 June 2016 so this is the way I prefer it but you can do it several different ways and it looks like vivec said he wrote an example Rosa uses the decimals instead of instead of the slashes we use backslash so sorry about that let’s have it Rosa uses decimals instead of backslash so where Americans would write this for today’s date you will also see this that’s also a common way to write the date in English and viewbag said 25 June 1993 remember to capitalize June though vivec is that your birthday June 27th good birthday it if so nice and warm here in Spokane at least so there’s lots of ways to write the date my advice would be to simply use this format month name number and year so let’s see that would be how I would prefer students write it or number of the day spelling of the month and then number of the year is also good okay and yeah in Brazil its day month year lots of countries yes so that would be the title page and then of course the the title is up here our page number the title is only repeated again on the first page in APA formatting for academic essays here you see there is some highlight here there’s a different color this is simply for your information it shows you an example of a citation but if we’re truly writing an essay it would look like this this is what your essay would really look like it was simply changed in color to help students identify it so keep that in mind and here’s another example of a an in-text citation so I’m gonna scroll down here past our essays here’s a note a further body paragraph in conclusion would normally follow and then now we have our references so the reference page also has a title at the very top and it’s simply called references your professor might ask you to call it something different like works cited or bibliography and they’ll give you a guide so you will know what you are supposed to do but if they don’t provide a guide if they just say please write an essay you’re pretty safe doing it this way okay looks like we have one two three and four references can you see those each time we have one of these hanging indents it denotes a new reference so here is reference number one reference number two reference number three and reference number four hopefully that’s clear there are no spaces between but the hanging indent here shows where each reference starts and is continued sometimes it’ll look a little strange because of the length of website addresses website URLs one way around that is to use Google two shortened URLs so Google’s short URLs you just go to URL shortener which is also just goog l and we can take a long URL like this this is a link to the article so let’s say this is the article we read we copy the URL we would paste it here in Google URL shortener prove we’re not robot and shorten the URL now this same URL right here takes us to that webpage and I’ll show you we can test it I’ll type that oops I copied the wrong things all right we click copy our short URL now I paste that it’s a much shorter URL and I can use that in my citation I at least allow my students to use it in their citations because I think it’s nice they’re able to um sorry I gotta find that document ah so they are able to do something like that and it just makes their reference even shorter and cleaner and nicer to to work with so you can do that as an option like this URL right here is very long very long this would be a perfect one to use Google’s URL shortener to shorten so then I just copy it and I can use it in place of this so hopefully that is helpful for you I would yes no spaces between this is already double-spaced so I’m gonna take off the bold bold language there and it is already double-spaced and actually these should not be italics either so you can tell if it’s double spaced by highlighting it and clicking here and seeing what is selected so by default it’s single spaced but if you change your settings you should see a double spaced here okay so no extra spaces between we would not do this if your your references look like this if you’re in my class I will send it back to you and say nope no extra spaces please fix that and you will have to fix these spaces so you notice that that changed I can put my hanging indent back by simply moving these over half an inch let’s do an inch just so you can see the big change there and again have one two three and four references so hopefully that explains for you how our reference pages should look this is a good looking reference page here it’s got the header reference title and then my four references any questions about that at all hopefully that is clear for everybody and gives you a bit of insight into how your essays should look as you do academic writing good job okay good job everybody on your comments I’m really happy to see everyone engaged and chatting about these subjects that we’re discussing APA format essay creation and Composition and also finding our credible sources so didn’t use double spaces between the same reference yeah that is correct we should not use double spaces in some situations for example if your professor tells you to single space your paper you’re going to want to and that will happen if you’re studying English at an American college or university that will happen so go with what your professor says but if they don’t give you enough guidance or instruction follow these rules that we’ve discussed in class and you should be fine your average professor should accept this as a good format to submit an English paper so again that is our lesson for today APA formatting is done finished so if you have any questions about APA formatting especially some Monroe’s are premium subscribers please let me know today in an email or during our hangout after class which will start in about five minutes and we can discuss we can talk about it anybody else feel free to email me and we can chat about it but starting next week we’re going to move on to a new topic so get any APA type questions to me soon because we’ll be moving forward into more academic English practice that is not just formatting and creation of of APA style essays I hope everybody has an amazing weekend our college is closed tomorrow it’s a holiday here in America so I won’t be teaching again until next Tuesday actually and I’ll be excited for our brand-new lesson that we’ll have so if it was your first time if your returning student if you’re a premium subscriber come back next Tuesday we will see you 2:30 p.m. Pacific Standard Time and I look forward to it thank you guys so much for the amazing comments your wonderful students it’s really exciting having you here so have a great day have a great weekend and I will see you guys next week

How to Make Money on by Proofreading And Editing For Writers

hi folks as damn a snack once again letting you about the new proofreading and editing Pratt platform that I built in today what we’re going to learn about is how to actually make money on system as a editor also you have to do is once you get into this screen so you login to the system you can go to the screen and go to my reviews and you request a job and there’ll be something that will pop up it’ll tell you how many words are in the document its readability score based on the flesh reading ease as well as how many points you’re going to earn so these are the points that actually allow you to make money this could be these points can be cashed in later on so you can actually look to see what the document is right here what it looks like so I pre-loaded the system with some sort of basic documents which the illustrate what’s going on so it says this is a test and I’ll tell you you know basic statistics how long it should actually take to get done so i get come back here i can either skip it and see it’s gonna it’s going to cost you points to skip it that is to make sure that you don’t just continuously click click through a bunch of documents yeah this is going to it sort of prevents that that habit of just clicking through a bunch of documents so if there’s something you really don’t like to do there’s going to be a little bit of a penalty associated to that so I’m going to accept the job and download the document and I can upload it right now and go thanks for the good job and down here I’m gonna put yo just for the fun of it kind of silly I know so then I’m going to upload the document I’m going to tell me what it was that I just did right here once i do that i can write some comments you can change you can upload another document if you want or change with what you worked on but i’m going to write thank you for for the wonderful paper all right you go here you can look to see what changes were made there was two changes on the document you can look at the different documents the original one versus the reviewed one that you did you could look at ability score by make me adding that work improved and that’s actually a good thing you want to improve the readability of the document so it went from nine to five to ninety eight and so I’m going to submit the comment and then it’s going to take you to this screen you could say send the review so you just click on that and it’s going to be sent to the original writer and the right order writer is going to edit that particular daughter they’re going to rate you on how well you did and then how do you make money so this is the important part right everybody wants to make money so once they do that and you get feedback on that document you will get the reciprocity points and it will pop up here tell you how much is in your within your system and you just come down to here so if you go into your profile page you come down to here to withdraw this will tell me that I’m not good enough at this point there’s a slight error and that tag so don’t beat me up over it I’m making changes as we speak and improving it so if you it’ll tell you that I actually have to do a little bit better and do a few more documents and become a better editor I i I’m we’re adjusting what the sort of credibility score is that you need but you basically need you know a certain high enough level that you’re not just putting I just don’t we don’t want to put and I have you just sort of put random things in in documents we want actually sure that you’re doing a good job so once you click the withdraw and you’ve done a good enough job you’re going to get some banking information and you’ll be able to restore the equivalent to how much you made in points in terms of real dollars and it’s going to be deposited in your brain out that you put in and that’s all secure we use stripe which is what most major apps use now to do their their banking and stuff so we don’t hold any banking information or anything like that it goes to the stripe system so once again that’s how you make money all you have to do is upload do a review come back here request a job do the do the do the work submit it once you submit it and you get feedback and you start earning some points you’ll start seeing that your points are going to build up your credibility your reciprocity credits are going to build up you go to withdraw and if you’re good enough so again it’s really important that you’re doing a good job editing don’t just put anything on the system make sure that you work really really hard you can start withdrawing and actually becoming a paid editor and that’s it’s pretty easy you have to maintain a certain level of score but if you do that then you can make some money on the side so thanks again and hopefully you enjoy so reciprocity calm so that’s spelt with a 3 not a knee so check out reciprocity calm let me know what you think and hopefully you can make some honey thanks bye